You are interested in the names of the streets and locations in your region. Before long, you have discovered that the name Jacques-Cartier is present 799 times (Consulted the Commission de toponymie du Quebec’s website: http://www.toponymie.gouv.qc.ca/ct/anglais.html)to identify locations at various places in Quebec. In comparison, Samuel de Champlain’s name is only used for 245 locations, Monsieur de Laval for 148, 115 are named for Louis-Joseph Papineau, 292 for Wilfrid Laurier, 494 for Robert Bourassa and 505 in honour of René Lévesque. You realise that Jacques Cartier is an important historical figure and want to know more about what he has done. While navigating on the internet, you discover that the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec has put in place a virtual library that presents historical documents of Jacques Cartier’s era.
Research the documents of the LHSQ’s virtual library in order to find travel narratives on the beginnings of New France.
Jacques Cartier, Les Trois Voyages de Jacques Quartier au Canada en 1534, 1535 et 1540; Published by the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec in Historical Documents, Series 1, Vol. 3, No. 1 (1843)
Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval, Voyage du Sieur de Roberval au Canada, 1542; Publié by the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec in Historical Documents, Series 1, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1843) http://www.transactions.morrin.org/docsfromclient/books/12/12_f.html
Jean Alphonse, Le Routier de Jean Alphonse, de Xaintonge, premier pilote du Sieur de Roberval, 1542; Published by the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec in Historical Documents, Series 1, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1843)
The five first introductory paragraphs to Jacques Cartier’s travel journal demonstrate the reasons for the LHSQ’s decision to publish these documents. In your opinion, based on the means by which the original documents were rediscovered, can we judge this publication as a primary or secondary source? Do you believe this to be a reliable source of information?
Questions 2 to 6 are based on the document ‘‘Les Trois Voyages de Jacques Quartier au Canada en 1534, 1535 et 1540’’
During his first voyage, Jacques Cartier meets numerous autochthonous nations. At chapter XIX ‘‘D'un autre Nation de Sauvages; de leurs coustumes et de leurs manières, tant de leur vivre que du vestement’’, he recounts one of these encounters and describes the customs of these people. Write down the extracts of the journal that could lead us to believe that Cartier judged European civilization superior to that of the Amerindian nations.
On the second voyage, at chapter X, Cartier describes an activity in the following words:
«Ils ont aussi une herbe de quoi ils font grand amas durant l'Eté pour l'Hyver, laquelle ils estiment fort, et en usent les hommes seulement, en la façon qui ensuit. Ils la font sécher au soleil, et la portent à leur col en une petite peau de beste en lieu de sac, avecque un cornet de pierre ou de bois. Puis à toute heure, font poudre de la dite herbe, et la mettent à l'un des bouts du dit cornet, puis mettent un charbon de feu dessus et soufflent par l'autre bout tant, qu'ils s'emplissent le corps de fumée, tellement qu'elle leur sort par la bouche et les nazilles, comme par un tuyau de cheminée ; ils disent que cela les tient sains et chaudement, et ne vont jamais sans les dites choses. Nous avons expérimenté la dite fumée, après laquelle avoir mis dedans notre bouche, semble y avoir de la poudre de poivre, tant est chaude.»
Explain, in your own words, what Cartier describes.
4.1 At chapter XV (of the second voyage), Cartier describes a very strange sickness which affects the ‘‘peuple de Stadacona’’ and eventually his sailors.
4.1.1 What illness is this?
4.1.2 What is the cause of this illness?
4.1.3 How do you explain the fact that Cartier and his crew were unaffected by this illness during the first voyage?
4.2 Cartier fears that inhabitants of Stadacona will notice that his crew is affected by this illness and that they are in a precarious situation. What trick does he use in order to make it appear as though all his men are healthy?
4.3 At chapter XVII, Domagaya shows Cartier a cure, which consists of using the ‘‘jus des feuilles d'un arbre, et le marc’’.
4.3.1 What tree is this?
4.3.2 What would be this tree’s name in English?
During his third crossing, Cartier runs out of potable water for the animals. What was his solution to this problem?
During the third voyage, near the end of chapter 2, Cartier describes mineralogical findings which he judges to be very interesting. What does he believe he has discovered?
Questions 7 to 9 are based on the document «Voyage du Sieur de Roberval au Canada».
Question 7 :
7.1 Le Sieur de Roberval leaves the port of la Rochelle on April 16th 1542. According to his voyage journal, when did he arrive at Newfoundland and what was the duration of his crossing?
7.2 Compare the time it took for this crossing with the time it took Cartier to reach the coast of Newfoundland in his 1534, 1535 and 1541 crossings.
When he arrives at Newfoundland, in June 1542, the Sieur de Roberval encounters Jacques Cartier as well as other ships.
8.1 Describe what Roberval relates.
8.2 In your opinion, what were those other people doing there?
8.3 Roberval asks Cartier to accompany him back into the Saint Laurence River. What will Cartier do then? Why do you think Cartier acted this way?
Roberval arrives at the current location of Quebec City in July, but chooses instead another location to spend the winter. What is the name of the place where Roberval had his fort built (old name and new name)?
Question 10 is based on the document ‘‘Le Routier de Jean Alphonse, de Xaintonge, premier pilote du Sieur de Roberval’’.
On page 4 of his Routier, Jean Alphonse writes that the Saguenay River leads to the Cathay Sea:
«L'entrée du Saguenay est par les 48e degrés et 1/3; son entrée n'a pas plus d'un quart de lieue de largeur, et il y fait dangereux vers le Sud-Ouest : et à deux ou trois lieues amont son entrée, cette Rivière commence à s'élargir de plus en plus : et il semble que ce soit un bras de mer. Je crois qu'icelle Rivière vient de la mer du Cathay, car dans cet endroit il sort un fort courant, et il y court une marée terrible.».
10.1 Do a short research in order to better understand what the Cathay is.
10.2 With our current geographical knowledge, was Jean Alphonse right?
After taking a look at the texts of Cartier, de Roberval and de Alphonse, questions might have been asked. We propose to take a question regarding one of these travel narratives and to carry out a historical research on this element. In order to ensure a complete answer, we suggest following the proposed research method.
The Research Process* :
1- Become aware of a problem
- Define the problem;
- Draw on prior learning;
- Consider strategies to find a solution.
2- Formulate questions
- Formulate questions spontaneously;
- Organize the questions by category;
- Select useful questions.
3- Plan research
- Establish a research plan;
- Identify sources of information;
- Choose or develop data collection tools.
4- Gather information, process the information
- Gather information;
- Classify the information by category;
- Distinguish fact from opinion;
- Assess the information;
- Distinguish relevant documents from less relevant ones;
- Compare the information.
5- Organize the information
- Choose a way to convey the information;
- Develop a plan;
- Choose the most important information;
- Organize the data in tables, lists and graphs or present it in text form;
- Use supporting documents;
- Indicate sources used.
6- Communicate the results of his/her research
- Use appropriate language;
- Present the work;
- Use a variety of formats.
*These research steps are taken from: Quebec Education Program, Secondary School Education, cycle one, Ministry of Education, Quebec, 2006, page 324.
At every stage of the research:
Review his/her approach:
- Critically review the steps taken;
- Evaluate the quality of his/her communication;
- Compare his/her new learning with prior learning;
- Think of solutions to problems encountered.
Copyright – Morrin Centre - 2008